Texas, along with Montana, Nevada and North Dakota, are the only states that meet biennially, whereas other states meet annually, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures.
The Texas Legislature, which convenes Jan. 8, has been meeting since it was established in 1845. According to The Texas Tribune, it was difficult to traverse the state in the 19th century, which is why lawmakers set biennial meetings in the state Constitution.
According to the Texas House of Representatives website, the maximum duration of a regular session is 140 days. However, the Constitution gives governors power to call as many special sessions as they want. Special sessions are limited to a period of 30 days, during which the Legislature is permitted to pass laws only on subjects submitted by the governor.