Texas voters will find 14 propositions to amend the state constitution on the Nov. 7 ballot. Community Impact spoke with Brandon Rottinghaus, a political science professor at the University of Houston, to break down each proposition.

Constitutional amendment elections give Texans “a window into the policy process” and a “chance to participate” in state affairs, Rottinghaus said.

Proposition 1 (House Joint Resolution 126)

This proposition aims to protect landowners’ rights to regulate what happens on their own property and limit state or federal interference.

Proposition 2 (Senate Joint Resolution 64)

This proposition would allow city and county governments to offer a property tax exemption to child care facilities. Rottinghaus said this would reduce property tax burdens on child care organizations, which many families rely on.

Proposition 3 (House Joint Resolution 132)

Proposition 3 asks voters to prevent a wealth tax, which is based on a person or entity’s assets, from being imposed in the future. Texas does not currently have any form of wealth taxes.

Proposition 4 (House Joint Resolution 2, from the second special session)

Voters can decide to authorize a $100,000 property tax exemption for Texans’ primary homes; establish a temporary 20% limit on annual value increases for nonhomestead property worth $5 million or less; require members of appraisal boards in counties of over 75,000 people to serve staggered four-year terms; and prevent funds allocated for property tax relief from going against the state’s constitutional spending limit.

Proposition 5 (House Joint Resolution 3)

This proposition would replace Texas’ National Research University Fund with the Texas University Fund. Four universities—Texas Tech University, the University of Houston, the University of North Texas and Texas State University—would qualify for the research endowment. Roughly $273 million would be set aside for 2024-25.

Proposition 6 (Senate Joint Resolution 75)

Voters can decide whether to establish the Texas Water Fund, which would support new and existing water projects across the state. The Texas Water Development Board would oversee the new fund.

Proposition 7 (Senate Joint Resolution 93)

This proposition would establish the Texas Energy Fund, which would finance the construction, maintenance and operation of electric facilities to ensure the state power grid remains reliable. The Public Utility Commission of Texas would oversee the new fund.

Proposition 8 (House Joint Resolution 125)

Proposition 8 asks voters to authorize the creation of the Texas Broadband Infrastructure Fund, which would help expand high-speed internet access statewide. The Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts would oversee the fund.

Proposition 9 (House Joint Resolution 2, from the regular session)

Voters can approve a cost-of-living adjustment for many former teachers and other retired public school employees. To combat inflation, teachers who retired before 2001 would get a 6% adjustment, those who retired between 2001-2013 would get a 4% adjustment, and those who retired between 2013-2020 would get a 2% adjustment.

Proposition 10 (Senate Joint Resolution 87)

This proposition would prevent medical and biomedical manufacturers from paying taxes on their tangible personal property, which the majority of businesses are currently taxed on. Officials said this exemption would strengthen Texas’ medical industry.

Proposition 11 (Senate Joint Resolution 32)

This proposition would create the El Paso County Conservation and Reclamation District. Various counties and regions in Texas have similar districts, which tax local residents to support the creation and development of water services and other facilities.

Proposition 12 (House Joint Resolution 134)

This proposition would eliminate the Galveston County Treasurer’s Office. If approved, other county officials would take over the duties of the treasurer. All Texas voters can vote on the proposition, but it only takes effect if a majority of Galveston County voters authorize it.

Proposition 13 (House Joint Resolution 107)

Voters can decide whether to raise the mandatory retirement period from 70-75 years old to 75-79 years old for justices and judges on appellate, district and criminal district courts.

Proposition 14 (Senate Joint Resolution 74)

This proposition would create the Texas Centennial Parks Conservation Fund, which would support the creation and improvement of state parks. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department would oversee the new fund.